Ahmadi R, Pilakoutas K, Hajirasouliha I, Guadagnini M (2011) A proposed Seismic Risk Assessment Framework for Industrial Facilities: A Case Study on Malaysia. The aims of this study were to analyze the distribution of leptospirosis human cases and the possible factors that influence the transmission of the disease in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, as well as provide evidence to support the development of interventions and guide new studies in the region.
Indirect Dumping: In an attempt to prevent flooding in most of the low-lying areas, refuse is piled near streams by residents, presumably to create levees with the result that construsul desentupidora porto alegre storm water runoff carries refuse and other solid wastes into the streams reducing their capacity and posing serious health and environmental hazards to residents downstream.
The Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul ranks fifth in the incidence rate (4.7 cases per 10,000 population) and presents around 15% of the total number of cases in the country 31 In a previous study conducted to identify high transmission areas and possible ecological components of leptospirosis transmission in Rio Grande do Sul, the highest incidence rates were found in the coastal sedimentary areas with low altitude and predominantly agricultural land use in the central valley 32 The state economy is based on agribusiness, including cattle and rice paddies, with an associated increased risk of leptospirosis in some areas that needs to be evaluated.
Spain is the European Union country with the highest demand for water for irrigation ( RODRÍGUEZ CASADO et al., 2008 ). About 68% of the water goes to the agricultural sector, 18% to the industrial sector, and 14% for domestic uses ( FAO, 2016 ). However, in recent years, there has been a decline in domestic, industrial, and agricultural demands, thanks to higher tariffs and modernization of the urban supply and irrigation systems.
The numerous cisterns for rainwater collection built across Spain are especially noteworthy, both for domestic use and constructions of great importance for supplying entire populations 4 These engineering works were especially important in cities and fortifications away from watercourses in which it was necessary to take advantage of available water resources or as alternative water source for potential city sites.
As claimed by several authors, the water use rights market in Spain has had a rather limited development, not fulfilling its potential because of the near trade limitation in the most critical periods of drought, almost disappearing during higher water availability periods.
They participated in a December 1999 seminar hosted by the City of Porto Alegre and cosponsored by the Lincoln Institute and the Planners Network, a North American association of urban planners, activists and scholars working for equality and social change.
With this background, the main challenges for the future are: to prove the positive economic balance of SUDS in Spain, to adapt SUDS to the different climates in Spain, for instance, comparing Atlantic to Mediterranean climate, and carrying out Urban Hydrological Rehabilitation: urban renewal using SUDS, and development of permeable cities.
The region that is now Rio Grande do Sul was originally settled by Amerindian peoples, mostly Guaraní and Kaingangs 41 European presence in the region started in 1627 with Spanish Jesuits The Jesuits established Indian Reductions in the region; those reductions where populated exclusively by Amerindians, mainly Guarani, and certainly not by Europeans, either Spanish or Portuguese.
Unlike other large Brazilian cities much farther north, notably Brasília , São Paulo , and Rio de Janeiro who observe a pronounced summer maximum in precipitation amounts, the city of Porto Alegre experiences a prominent winter maximum in precipitation values and cloud cover, for the summer season is primarily hot and dry; though evidently high humidity levels often give a distinct mugginess to the air and negatively impacts air quality.
The Cortes de Cádiz, which approved the Constitution of 1812, established the public character of hydraulic use and intensified political concerns regarding water planning ( SÁNCHEZ-MARTÍNEZ et al., 2011 ). The Water Law of 1866 was the first water regulation code in the world, but it had a short duration of only two years.
The costs became clear in the proposals for the Ebro River transfer in the National Hydrological Plan of 2000, leading later governments to abandon the idea under the strong social pressures coordinated by the New Water Culture” movement ( MARTÍNEZ GIL, 1997 ). In addition, exchanges would have the advantages of being able to reinforce the water economic dimension for users, motivate rational water use because it is a scarce resource, and prevent situations of use restriction in scarcity periods in urban areas close to irrigated zones.