One of the greatest dangers that the elderly are vulnerable to is suffering from a stroke. The modified Emory Functional Ambulation Profile is reliable and valid for use in people with stroke 40 Balance will be assessed using the Berg Balance Scale, which provides a psychometrically sound measure of balance impairment for use in post-stroke assessment 40 , 41 Executive function will be assessed using the valid and reliable Trail Making Test 42 Balance confidence will be assessed with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale, a questionnaire measuring balance confidence in performing specific activities, which has good test-retest reliability and validity 43 , 44 Self-reported limitations in walking will be assessed using the Walking Questionnaire 45 , which targets experienced limitations in indoor and outdoor walking relative to pre-stroke walking limitations.
Subgroup analyses will be planned according to the location of brain lesion (hemispheric, brainstem or cerebellum), the time since stroke (early, late, chronic), the toys for children with cerebral palsy PT (type, main aim (direct effect or generalisation), overall duration), the type of approaches (top-down or bottom-up) and the methodological quality of studies.
Principles of promoting neuroplasticity in a clinical setting are emerging and have been reviewed elsewhere 175 - 177 Issues unique to stroke recovery and rehabilitation studies are increasingly being recognized 178 - 180 and are important to effective clinical research in this area.
While the body of knowledge in relation to physiotherapy in stroke rehabilitation is still growing further confirmation of the evidence for physiotherapy after stroke, and facilitating the transfer to clinical practice, requires a better understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms, including neuroplasticity, that drive stroke recovery, as well as the impact of physiotherapy interventions on these underlying mechanisms.
A homogeneous nonsignificant SES was found (χ2=0.72, P=0.70) for studies in which therapeutic intervention was initiated after 6 months after stroke (0.07 SDU fixed; CI, −0.17 to 0.28; Z=0.49), whereas the homogeneous (χ2=28.61, P=0.10; I2=33.6%) SES was significant (0.15 SDU fixed; CI, 0.06 to 0.23; Z=3.24, P<0.001) when therapy was applied within the first 6 months.
Results of a pilot randomized trial, VERITAS, published in Cerebrovascular Diseases in 2010, looked at the effects of early active mobilization, automated monitoring, or both in 32 patients with either hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke who were recruited within 36 hours of stroke.
Recent findings For patients with high-risk stroke or TIA, for instance, minor stroke or high-risk TIA, or stroke of atherosclerotic origin with evidence suggesting risk of artery-to-artery embolism or with high-grade, symptomatic arterial stenosis, early initiated, short-term dual antiplatelet (e.g. aspirin and clopidogrel) is effective in reducing the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events which does not increase the risk of severe or fatal bleeding, as compared with mono antiplatelet therapy.
First, this suggests a dose-dependent benefit for the active assist robotic therapy mode, based on results at end of treatment and at 1 month after treatment: A-A group subjects had greater gains than ANA-A group subjects for ARAT score repeated measures ANOVA, time × treatment group interaction, F(2,10) = 5.2, P < 0.03 to end of treatment and F(3,8) = 5.0, P < 0.04 to 1 month post-treatment, using exact F-values, see Fig.
Johns Hopkins' Kata Project, a collaboration between neuroscientists, engineers, animal experts, artists and entertainment industry experts, has designed an immersive experience for post-stroke patients who will try to swim” as a virtual dolphin named Bandit.